Haphephobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by a fear of being touched. Other names for haphephobia include chiraptophobia, aphenphosmphobia, and thixophobia.
Being touched by strangers or without consent can make many people uncomfortable. However, if the fear is intense, appears even when touched by family or friends, and if it causes significant distress, it may be haphephobia.
This condition is different from a hypersensitivity to touch, which is called allodynia. A person with allodynia may also avoid being touched, but they do so because it causes them to feel pain rather than fear.
Fear of being touched is considered a phobia when the fear arises almost every time the person is touched, persists for over 6 months, and when it impairs relationships or work life.
The following symptoms may indicate haphephobia:
Children may show the following symptoms when touched:
Doctors refer to the symptoms listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) to diagnose phobias, which are anxiety disorders related to specific objects or situations.
Haphephobia may be related to ochlophobia, which is a fear of crowds.
It also may be caused by experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event that involved being touched. A person may not remember the event that triggered the phobia, especially if they were very young at the time.
Phobias can also run in the family. A person can learn a fear of being touched if they observe a loved one expressing fear or avoidance of being touched.
While haphephobia can sometimes occur on its own, it can also be a related to other conditions. These include:
Phobias are relatively common. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIH) estimate that 12.5 percent of adults in the United States experience a phobia at some point in their lives.
The following factors may make haphephobia more likely:
One of the biggest obstacles in getting over a phobia is avoiding the situation that causes the fear. Treatments aim to help a person cope with the anxiety related to their fear and to overcome their fear gradually.
There are many types of therapy available to help a person manage or overcome phobias. These include:
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can teach a person new behaviors and thought processes to help them deal with the anxiety they feel when touched.
Exposure therapy is where a person is gradually exposed to their fear in a safe, controlled environment over weeks or months. This may begin with imagining being touched and progressing to physically being touched or standing in a crowded space.
Virtual reality exposure therapy allows safe, controlled exposure to phobic objects or situations without actually having to risk being near the object or in the situation. One review found that this can be a useful therapy for phobias.
Medications such as beta-blockers or antidepressants can help to alleviate immediate anxiety and panic symptoms. These drugs are often used in combination with psychotherapies.
Breathing exercises and other relaxation techniques are useful for managing anxiety and panic attacks. Focusing on taking long, deep breaths can reduce the immediate symptoms of anxiety when a person is touched.
Practicing mindfulness can help a person to understand their thought processes and behaviors and to develop better ways of dealing with anxiety. A recent review found that mindfulness is effective for treating and preventing anxiety and depression.
Exercise, taking time to relax and getting enough sleep are powerful ways to promote overall mental health.
Self-care is often used to reduce anxiety and panic and can also help a person to tackle their phobias.
Specific fears can be extreme, particularly in children, but they often go away without medical treatment.
The fear of being touched is a particularly difficult fear to cope with because of cultural and social expectations around touch.
If this fear persists for over 6 months, leads to an intense avoidance of everyday situations, and gets in the way of personal or work life, a person should contact their doctor.
Specific phobias respond very well to treatment. Using daily coping mechanisms can reduce the impact of a phobia on a person’s life and help them overcome the phobia in the long-term.
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